Marom Bikson

Marom Bikson


Research Fellow, Neurophysiology Unit, University of Birmingham Medical School, U.K., 2003
Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH, 2000
B.S., Biomedical Engineering (EE Concentration), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1995

Research Areas and Expertise

Prof. Marom Bikson’s research group studies the effects of electricity on the human body and applies this knowledge toward the development of medical devices and electrical safety guidelines.

"Our goal is to improve human health by combining engineering innovation, with cutting-edge experimental techniques, and original bio-medical insight. This challenge requires creative problem-solving, precision, and imagination. We are tremendously fortunate to access the extensive resources of the City University of New York research centers and of the New York Center for Biomedical Engineering hospital network."

Specific areas of research include:

1) Medical devices including biosensors, drug delivery technology, and electrotherapy devices for neurological disorders.

2) Medical device safety including electrical hazards, electroporation, heating damage, and safe stimulation protocols.

3) Electrical safety, electric shock hazards, and accidental electrocution.

4) Understanding the neuronal networks underlying normal brain function, including the role of endogenous electric fields.

5) Developing new treatments for neurological diseases including epilepsy and depression, through translational research.

Prof. Bikson’s group uses a range of research and engineering design tools including cellular and animal studies, computer simulations, imaging, and clinical evaluation. Prof. Bikson’s research has received support from funding agencies including NIH (NINDS,NCI,NIGMS, NIMH), DoD (AFRL), The Andy Grove Foundation, The Wallace H. Coulter Foundation, The Epilepsy Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Prof. Bikson is co-founder and CEO of Soterix Medical Inc. .

Prof. Bikson is actively involved in biomedical education including outreach to underserved groups. Prof. Bikson is founding chairman of Neuromodec and its events including the NYCmeuromodulation conference and the Neuromodec tDCS Workshop.

Prof. Bikson has provided extensive technical support and consulting for biomedical companies (Medtronic, Boston Scientific, NuSkin, Nevrocorp, Ion Channel Innovations, Wyle, Thync), utility companies (Con Edison, First Energy), government agencies (NIH ,DoD, NASA, NY State Public Service Commission, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies), and litigation support.

View Prof. Bikson's CV : PDF

Prof. Bikson is co-director of Neural Engineering at The City College of New York and the New York Center for Biomedical Engineering. More project information at CCNY Neural Engineering


Selected Publications
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Bikson M, Paneri B, Mourdoukoutas A, Esmaeilpour Z, Badran BW, Azzam R, Adair D, Datta A, Fang XH, Wingeiner B, Chao D, Alonso-Alonso M, Lee K, Knotkova H, Woods AJ, Hagedorn D, Jeffery D, Giordane J, Tyler WJ. Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk. Brain Stimul. 2017. doi:10. 1016/j.brs.2017.10.012 PDF

Robinson C, Armenta M, Combs A, Lamphere M, Garza G, Neary J, Wolfe J, Molina E, Semey D, McKee C, Gallegos S, Jones A, Trumbo MC, Al-Azzawi H, Hunter M, lieberman G, Coffman BA, Aboseria M, Bikson M, Clark VP, Witkiewitz K. Modulating affective experience and emotional intelligence with loving kindness meditation and transcranial direct current stimulation: A pilot study. Soc Neurosci. 2017. doi:10.1080/17470919.2017.1397054. PDF

Bikson M, Unal G, Brunoni A, Loo C. Special Reports: What psychiatrists need to know about Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Psychiatric Times. 2017 Oct 24. 

Mourdoukoutas AP, Truong DQ, Adair DK, Simon B, Bikson M. High-Resolution Multi-Scale Computational Model for Non-Invasive Cervical Vagus Nerve Stimulation. Neuromodulation 2017. doi:10.1111/ner/12706. PDF

Shaw MT, Kasschau M, Dobbs B, Pawlak N, Pau W, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet LE. Remotely Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: An Update on Safety and Tolerability. J. Vis. Exp. 2017 Oct 7. (128), e56211, doi:10.3791/56211. Free Online

Zareen N, Shinozaki M, Ryan D, Alexander H, Amer A, Truong DQ, Khadka N, Sarkar A, Naeem S, Bikson M, Martin JH. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2017 Nov;297:179-189. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.08.004. Online Link (article in production)

Bikson M, Grossman P, Zannou AL, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B, Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Liu A, Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J, Richardson JD, Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ. Response to letter to the editor : Safety of transcranial direct current stimulation : Evidence based update 2016. Brain Stimul. 2017 Sep-Oct; 10(5): 986-987. doi: PDF

Charvet LE, Dobbs B, Shaw MT , Bikson M, Datta  A, Krupp LB. Remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: Results from a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Mult. Scler. J. 2017 Sep 22; 00(0): 1-10.  doi: PDF

Chrysikou EG, Berryhill ME, Bikson M, Coslett HB. Editorial: Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Sep 8;11:448. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00448. PDF

Jackson MP, Bikson M, Liebetanz D, Nitsche M. How to consider animal data in tDCS safety standards. Brain Stimul. 2017 Aug 18. pii: S1935-861X(17)30883-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.08.004. Online Link (article in production)

Chrysikou EG, Berryhill M, Bikson M and Coslett HB. Editorial: Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2017 Aug. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00448. Online Link (article in production)

Rabau S,  Shekhawat GS,  Aboseria M,  Griepp D,  Rompaey VV,  Bikson M,  de Heyning PV. Comparison of the long-term effect of positioning the cathode in tDCS in tinnitus patients. Front. Aging Neurosci. 2107 July 28; 9(217). doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00217. PDF

Jackson MP, Truong D, Brownlow ML, Wagner JA, McKinley RA, Bikson M, Jankord R. Safety parameter considerations of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Aug; 64:152-161. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.04.008. PDF

Boateng Jr. A, Paneri B, Dufau A, Borges H, Bikson M. Conference proceedings : The effect of cooling electrodes on tDCS tolerability. Brain Stimul.  July–August 2017; 10(4): e82–e83. doi: PDF 

Esmaeilpour Z, Milosevic M, Azevedo K,  Khadka N, Navarro J, Brunoni A,  Popovic MR, Bikson M, Fonoff  ET. Conference proceedings: Intracranial Voltage Recording During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Subjects With Validation of a Standard Model. Brain Stimul.  July–August 2017; 10(4): e72–e75. doi: PDF

Shaw M, Dobbs B, Pawlak N, Pau W, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Kasschau M, Frontario A, Charvet L. Conference proceedings: Updated Safety and Tolerability of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS). Brain Stimul.  July–August 2017; 10(4): e60–e61. doi: PDF

Pawlak N, Agarwal S, Biagioni M, Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet LE. Conference proceedings: Remotely-supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) for Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Clinical Trials: Guidelines and Feasibility. Brain Stimul.  July–August 2017; 10(4): e59–e60. doi: PDF 

Pau W, Shaw M, Dobbs B, Kasschau M, Frontario A,  Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet L. Conference proceedings: Mood Improvement with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is Specific to Positive vs. Negative Affect in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Stimul.  July–August 2017; 10(4): e58–e59. doi: PDF

Dobbs B, Shaw M, Frontario A, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Kasschau M, Charvet L. Conference proceedings: Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) Improves Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Stimul.  July–August 2017; 10(4): e57–e58. doi: PDF 

Chakraborty D, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Kaphzan H. Neuromodulation of axon terminals. Cereb Cortex. 2017 Jun 24; 1-9. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhx158. PDF

Antal A, Alekseichuk I, Bikson M, Brockmöller J, Brunoni AR, Chen R, Cohen LG, Dowthwaite G, Ellrich J, Flöel A, Fregni F, George MS, Hamilton R, Haueisen J, Herrmann CS, Hummel FC, Lefaucheur JP, Liebetanz D, Loo CK, McCaig CD, Miniussi C, Miranda PC, Moliadze V, Nitsche MA, Nowak R, Padberg F, Pascual-Leone A, Poppendieck W, Priori A, Rossi S, Rossini PM, Rothwell J, Rueger MA, Ruffini G, Schellhorn K, Siebner HR, Ugawa Y, Wexler A, Ziemann U, Hallett M, Paulus W. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation: Safety, ethical, legal regulatory and application guidelines. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017 Jun 19. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2017.06.001. PDF

Dmochowski JP, Bikson M. Noninvasive Neuromodulation Goes Deep. Cell 169, June 1, 2017, Elsevier Inc. doi: PDF

De Paolis A, Bikson M, Nelson JT, de Ru JA, Packer M, Cardoso L. Analytical and numerical modeling of the hearing system: advances towards the assessment of hearing damage. Hear Res. 2017 Jun; 349:111-128. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2017.01.015. PDF

Nitsche M. Bikson M. Extending the parameter range for tDCS: Safety and tolerability of 4 mA stimulation. Brain Stimul. May–June 2017; 10(3): 541-542. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2017.03.002. PDF

Dmochowski JP, Koessler L, Norcia AM, Bikson M, Parra LC. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation. Neuroimage. 2017 May 31;157:69-80. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.059. PDF

Edwards D, Cortes M, Wortman-Jutt S, Putrino D, Bikson M, Thickbroom G, Pascual-Leone A. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Sports Performance. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 May 10;11:243. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00243. Free online

Ezquerro F, Moffa AH, Bikson M, Khadka N, Aparicio LV, Sampaio-Junior B, Fregni F, Bensenor IM, Lotufo PA, Pereira AC, Brunoni AR. The Influence of Skin Redness on Blinding in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Studies: A Crossover Trial. Neuromodulation. 2017 Apr; 20(3):248-255. doi: 10.1111/ner.12527. PDF

Chen C, Bikson M, Chou L, Shan C, Khadka N, Chen W, Fregn F. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation. Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 3;7:43619. doi: 10.1038/srep43619. PDF

A. Cancelli, C. Cottone, F. Tecchio, D. Truong, J. Dmochowski, D. Adair, M. Bikson. P094 Method for EEG guided transcranial Electrical Stimulation without models.Clinical Neurophysiology 2017 Mar; 128 (3):e54–e56. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.10.219. PDF

Gebodh N, Adair D, Chelette K, Esmaeilpour Z, Bikson M, Dmochowski J, Parra LC,  Woods AJ, Kappenman E. Modulation of physiologic artifacts during concurrent tDCS and EEG. Brain Stimul. 2017 Mar 1;10(2):429-430. doi: PDF

Gebodh N, Adair D, Chelette K, Esmaeilpour Z, Bikson M, Dmochowski J, Woods A, Kappenman E. Physiologic Artifacts When Combining EEG and tDCS. Brain Stimul. 2017 Jul 1; 10(4):e33-e33. PDF

Bai S, Gálvez V, Dokos S, Martin D, Bikson M, Loo C. Computational models of Bitemporal, Bifrontal and Right Unilateral ECT predict differential stimulation of brain regions associated with efficacy and cognitive side effects. Eur Psychiatry. 2017 Mar; 41:21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.09.005. PDF

Esmaeilpour Z, Schestatsky P, Bikson M, Brunoni AR, Pellegrinelli A, Piovesan FX, Santos MM, Menezes RB, Fregni F. Notes on Human Trials of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation between 1960 and 1998. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Feb 23; 11:71. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00071. Free online

Charvet L, Shaw M, Dobbs B, Frontario A, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Krupp L, Zeinapour E, Kasschau M. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (RS-tDCS) Increases the Benefit of At-Home Cognitive Training in Multiple Sclerosis. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface.  Neuromodulation. 2017 Feb 22. doi: 10.1111/ner.12583 PDF

Rahman A, Lafon B, Parra LC, Bikson M. Direct current stimulation boosts synaptic gain and cooperativity in vitro. J Physiol. 2017 Feb 13; 595(11): 3535–3547. doi: 10.1113/JP273005. PDF

Giordano J, Bikson M, Kappenman ES, Clark VP, Coslett B, Hamblin MR, Hamilton R, Jankord R, Kozumbo WJ, McKinley A, Nitsche MA, Reilly JP, Richardson J, Wurzman R, Calabrese E. Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Dose Response. 2017 Feb 9;15(1). doi: 10.1177/1559325816685467. PDF

Huang Y, Liu AA, Lafon B, Friedman D, Dayan M, Wang X, Bikson M, Doyle WK, Devinsky O, Parra LC Measurements and models of electric fields in the 'in vivo' human brain during transcranial electric stimulation. Elife. 2017 Feb 7; 6. doi: Journal Link

Kronberg G, Bridi M, Abel T, Bikson M, Parra LC. Direct Current Stimulation Modulates LTP and LTD: Activity Dependence and Dendritic Effects. Brain Stimul. 2017 Jan – Feb; 10(1):51-58. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.10.001. PDF

Lafon B, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Direct Current Stimulation Alters Neuronal Input/Output Function. Brain Stimul. 2017 Jan – Feb; 10(1):36-45. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.08.014. PDF

Khadka N, Zannou AL, Zunura F, Truong DQ, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. Minimal heating at the Skin surface during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Neuromodulation. 2017 Jan 22. doi: 10.1111/ner.12554. PDF

Sebastian R, Saxena S, Tsapkini K, Faria AV, Long C, Wright A, Davis C, Tippett DC, Mourdoukoutas AP, Bikson M, Celnik P, Hillis A. Cerebellar tDCS: A novel approach to augment language treatment post stroke. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Jan 12; 10:695. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00695. Free online

De Paolis A, Watanabe H, Nelson JT, Bikson M, Packer M, Cardoso L. Human Cochlear Hydrodynamics: A High-Resolution μCT Images­Based Finite Element Study. J Biomech. 2017 Jan 4; 50:209-216. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.11.020. PDF


Kasschau M, Reisner J, Sherman K, Bikson M, Datta A, Charvet LE. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Is Feasible for Remotely Supervised Home Delivery in Multiple Sclerosis. Neuromodulation. 2016 Dec; 19(8):824-831. doi: 10.1111/ner.12430. PDF

Alonzo A, Aaronson S, Bikson M, Husain M, Lisanby S, Martin D, McClintock SM, McDonald WM, O'Reardon J, Esmailpoor Z, Loo C. Study design and methodology for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial of transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Nov; 51:65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2016.10.002.  PDF

Jackson MP, Rahman A, Lafon B, Kronberg G, Ling D, Parra LC, Bikson M. Animal Models of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods and Mechanisms. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Nov; 127(11):3425-3454. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2016.08.016. PDF

Teichmann M, Lesoil C, Godard J, Vernet M, Bertrand A, Levy R, Dubois B, Lemoine L, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Kas A, Valero-Cabré A. Direct current stimulation over the anterior temporal areas boosts primary aphasia. Ann Neurol. 2016 Nov; 80(5):693-707. doi: 10.1002/ana.24766. PDF

Jog MV, Smith RX, Jann K, Dunn W, Lafon B, Truong D, Wu A, Parra L, Bikson M, Wang DJ. In-vivo Imaging of Magnetic Fields Induced by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Brain using MRI. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 4; 6:34385. doi: 10.1038/srep34385.  Online

Paneri B, Adair D, Thomas C, Khadka N, Patel V, Tyler WJ, Parra L, Bikson M. Tolerability of Repeated Application of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation with Limited Outputs to Healthy Subjects. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep-Oct; 9(5):740-54. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.05.008. PDF

Bikson M...Woods A et al. Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence Based Update. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep-Oct; 9(5):641-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.004. PDF

Bikson M,Paneri B, Giordano J. The off-label use, utility and potential value of tDCS in the clinical care of particular neuropsychiatric conditions. Journal of Law and the Biosciences. 2016 Sep; 1–5 doi:10.1093/jlb/lsw044 PDF

Cappiello M, Xie W, David A, Bikson M. Zhang W. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Pattern Separation. NeuroReport. 2016 Aug 3;27(11):826-32. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000621. PDF

Alam M, Truong DQ, Khadka N, Bikson M. Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). Phys Med Biol. 2016 Jun 21; 61(12):4506-21. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/61/12/4506. PDF

Hogeveen J, Grafman J, Aboseria M, David A, Bikson M, Hauner KK. Effects of high-definition and conventional tDCS on response inhibition. Brain Stimul. 2016: S1935-861X(16)30091-2. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.04.015 PDF

Hampstead BM, Briceño EM, Mascaro N, Mourdoukoutas A, Bikson M. Current Status of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Posttraumatic Stress and Other Anxiety Disorders. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2016 Jun; 3(2):95-101. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0070-9. PDF

Dias DR, Trevizol AP, Miorin LA, Bikson M, Aboseria M, Shiozawa P, Cordeiro Q. Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocol for Treating Depression Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Trial. J ECT. 2016 Jun;32(2):e3-4. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0000000000000273. Online Link

Cancelli A, Cottone C, Tecchio F, Truong D, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. A simple method for EEG guided transcranial Electrical Stimulation without models. J Neural Eng. 2016 Jun; 13(3):036022. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/13/3/036022. PDF

Hämmerer D, Bonaiuto J, Klein-Flügge M, Bikson M, Bestmann S. Selective alteration of human value decisions with medial frontal tDCS is predicted by changes in attractor dynamics. Sci Rep. 2016 May 5; 6:25160. doi: 10.1038/srep25160.  PDF

Santos-Pontelli TE, Rimoli BP, Favoretto DB, Mazin SC, Truong DQ, Leite JP, Pontes-Neto OM, Babyar SR, Reding M, Bikson M, Edwards DJ. Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). PLoS One. 2016 Mar 31;11(3):e0152331. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152331 PDF

Woods AJ, Antal A, Bikson M, Boggio PS, Brunoni AR, Celnik P, Cohen LG, Fregni F, Herrmann CS, Kappenman ES, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Miniussi C, Miranda PC, Paulus W, Priori A, Reato D, Stagg C, Wenderoth N, Nitsche MA. A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Feb; 127(2):1031-48. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.012. PDF

Castillo-Saavedra L, Gebodh N, Bikson M, Diaz-Cruz C, Brandao R, Coutinho L, Truong D, Datta A, Shani-Hershkovich R, Weiss M, Laufer I, Reches A, Peremen Z, Geva A, Parra LC, Fregni F. Clinically Effective Treatment of Fibromyalgia Pain With High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Phase II Open-Label Dose Optimization. J Pain. 2016 Jan; 17(1):14-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2015.09.009. PDF


Rahman A, Lafon B, Bikson M. Multilevel computational models for predicting the cellular effects of noninvasive brain stimulation. Prog Brain Res. 2015; 222:25-40. doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.09.003 PDF

Bikson M, Truong DQ, Mourdoukoutas AP, Aboseria M, Khadka N, Adair D, Rahman A. Modeling sequence and quasi-uniform assumption in computational neurostimulation. Prog Brain Res. 2015; 222:1-23  doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.08.005  PDF

Guleyupoglu B, Schestatsky P, Fregni F, Bikson M. Methods and technologies for low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation: waveforms, terminology, and historical notes. Chapter in Textbook of Neuromodulation. (Helena Knotkova and Dirk Rasche ed.) Springer. ISBN: 978-1-4939-1407-4, 2015. Page 7-16. PDF

Truong D, Minhas P, Mokrejs A, Bikson M. A Role of Computational Modeling in Customization of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Susceptible. Chapter in Textbook of Neuromodulation. (Helena Knotkova and Dirk Rasche ed.) Springer. ISBN: 978-1-4939-1407-4, 2015. Page 113-126. PDF

Cancelli A, Cottone C, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Tecchio D. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Personalizing the Neuromodulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 234-7. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318343. PDF

Knotkova H, Woods AJ, Bikson M, Nitche MA. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): What Pain Practitioners Need to Know. Practical Pain Management. 2015; 15(3) link 

Kasschau M, Sherman K, Haider L, Frontario A, Shaw M, Datta A, Bikson M, Charvet L. A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). J Vis Exp. 2015 Dec 26;(106):e53542. doi: 10.3791/53542. Video  PDF

A, Nascimento T, Lawrence M, Gupta V, Zieba T, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Datta A, Bellile E, DaSilva AF. High-Definition and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD. Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec; 8(6):1085-92. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.008. PDF

Galletta EE, Cancelli A, Cottone C, Simonelli I, Tecchio F, Bikson M, Marangolo P. Use of computational modeling to inform tDCS electrode montages for the promotion of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia. Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec; 8(6):1108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.018. PDF

Xu J, Healy SM, Truong DQ, Datta A, Bikson M, Potenza MN. A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants. Yale J Biol Med. 2015 Sep 3; 88(3):219-25. PDF

Bikson M, Aboseria M, Uchida RR, Cordeiro Q. Targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia: results from a proof-of-concept trial assessing  prefrontal anodic tDCS protocol. Schizophr Res. 2015 Aug; 166(1-3):362-3. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.029. PDF

DaSilva AF, Truong DQ, DosSantos MF, Toback RL, Datta A, Bikson M. State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control. Front Neuroanat. 2015 Jul 15; 9:89. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00089. PDF Free Online

Senco NM, Huang Y, D’Urso G, Parra LC, Bikson M, Mantovani A, Shavitt EG, Hoexter MQ, Miguel EC, Brunoni A. Transcranial direct current stimulation in obsessive–compulsive disorder: emerging clinical evidence and considerations for optimal montage of electrodes. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2015 Jul;12(4):381-91. doi: 10.1586/17434440.2015.1037832. PDF

Nitsche M, Bikson M, Bestmann S. On the use of meta-analysis in neuromodulatory non-invasive brain stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun; 8(3):666-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.03.008. PDF 

Seibt O, Brunoni AR, Huang Y, Bikson M. The Pursuit of DLPFC: Non-neuronavigated Methods to Target the Left Dorsolateral Pre-frontal Cortex With Symmetric Bicephalic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Brain Stimul. 2015 May-Jun;8(3):590-602. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.01.401. PDF

Bruoni AR. Bikson M et al. The Escitalopram versus Electric Current Therapy to treat Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS): rationale and study design of a non-inferiority, triple-arm, placebo-controlled clinical trial. São Paulo Med J. 2015 May-Jun;133(3):252-63. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2014.00351712. PDF

Shekhawat GS, Sundram F, Bikson M, Truong D, Ridder DD, Kirk I, Stinear CM, Welch D, Searchfield GD. Intensity, Duration, and Location of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Tinnitus Relief. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 May; 30(4):349-59. doi: 10.1177/1545968315595286. PDF

Khadka N, Truong DQ, Bikson M. Principles of Within Electrode Current Steering (WECS). J Med Device 2015 Apr 13-16; 9 ,020947-1. doi:10.1115/1.4030126. PDF

Jones KT, Stephens JA, Alam M, Bikson M, Berryhill ME. Longitidunal Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 7;10(4):e0121904. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121904.  Free Online  PDF

Song W, Truong D, Bikson M, Martin JH. Trans-spinal direct current stimulation immediately modifies motor cortex sensorimotor maps. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Apr 1;113(7):2801-11. doi: 10.1152/jn.00784.2014. PDF

Woods AJ, Hamilton R, Kranjec A, Minhaus P, Bikson M, Yu J, Chatterjee A. Exploring structure-function relationships using parallel fMRI and tDCS. Brain Stimul. 2014 Mar-Apr; 7(2):e9. doi: PDF 

Grecco LH, Li S, Michel S, Castillo-Saavedra L, Mourdoukoutas A, Bikson M, Fregni F. Transcutaneous Spinal Stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: State of the art. Journal of Neurorestoratology 2015 March 23;3:73—82. doi: PDF

Charvet L, Kasschau M, Datta A, Knotkova H, Stevens MC, Alonzo A, Loo C, Krull KR, Bikson M. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols. Front Syst Neurosci. 2015 Mar 17;9:26. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00026. Free Online  PDF

Fregni F, Nitsche MA, Loo CK, Brunoni AR, Marangolo P, Leite J, Carvalho S, Bolognini N, Caumo W, Paik NJ, Simis M, Ueda K, Ekhtiari H, Luu P, Tucker DM, Tyler WJ, Brunelin J, Datta A, Juan CH, Venkatasubramanian G, Boggio PM, Bikson M. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel. Clin Res Regul Aff. 2015 Mar 1;32(1):22-35. doi: 10.3109/10601333.2015.980944. PDF

Reato D, Bikson M. Parra L. Lasting modulation of in-vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Mar 1; 113(5):1334-41. doi: 10.1152/jn.00208.2014. PDF Journal Link

Foerster BR, Nascimento T, DeBoer M, Bender M, Rice I, Truong D,  Bikson M, Clauw D, Zubieta J, Harris R, DaSilva A. Excitatory and Inhibitory Brain Metabolites as Targets and Predictors of Effective Motor Cortex tDCS Therapy in Fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Feb; 67(2):576-81. doi: 10.1002/art.38945. PDF


Bikson M, Edwards D, Kappenman E. The outlook for non-invasive brain stimulation. Brain Stimulation 2014, 7(6):771-2. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.10.005 PDF Journal Link

Khadka N, Rahman A, Sarantos C, Truong D, Bikson M. Methods for Specific Electrode Resistance Measurement during Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Brain Stimulation 2014 8(1):150-9. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.10.004. PDF

Gillick BT, Kirton A, Carmel J, Minhas P, Bikson M. Pediatric Stroke and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods for Rational Individualized Dose Optimization Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2014; doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00739 Free Online

Scheldrup M, Greenwood PM, McKendrick R, Strohl J, Bikson M, Alam A, McKinley RA, Parasuraman R. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2014; DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00665 Free Online

DosSantos MF, Martikainen LK, Nascimento TD, Love TM, DeBoer MD, Schambra HM, Bikson M, Zubieta J, DaSilva AF. Building up Analgesia in Humans via the Endogenous μ-Opioid System by Combining Placebo and Active tDCS: A Preliminary Report. PLOS ONE 2014; 9(7) e102350 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102350 Free Online

Richardson JD, Fillmore P, Datta A, Truong D, Bikson M, Fridriksson J. Toward Development of Sham Protocols for High- Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS). NeuroRegulation 2014; 1(1) p. 62-72 doi:10.15540/nr.2014.1.1.62 PDF

Guleyupoglu B, Febles N, Minhas P, Hahn C, Bikson M. Reduced discomfort during High-Definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2014; doi: 10.3389/fneng.2014.00028 PDF Free Online

Guarienti F, Caumo W, Shiozawa P, Cordeiro Q, Boggio PS, Benseñor IM, Lotufo PA, Bikson M, Brunoni AR. Reducing transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced erythema with skin pretreatment: considerations for sham-controlled tDCS clinical trials. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2014; DOI: 10.1111/ner.12230 PDF

Moreno-Duarte I, Gebodh N, Schestatsky P, Guleyupoglu B, Reato D, Bikson M, Fregni F. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS), and Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS). The Stimulated Brain 2014; (ed. R Cohen Kadosh). Elsevier ISBN 9780124047044, Chapter 2, p.35-60 PDF

Truong D, Minhas P, Nair A, Bikson M. Computational modeling assisted design of optimized and individualized transcranial Direct Current Stimulation protocols . The Stimulated Brain 2014; (ed. R Cohen Kadosh). Elsevier ISBN 9780124047044 Chapter 4, p.85-116 PDF

Antal A, Bikson M, Datta A, Lafon B, Dechent P, Parra LC, Paulus W. Imaging artifacts induced by electrical stimulation during conventional fMRI of the brain. Neuroimage 2014; 85:1040-1047 (Cover). PDF

Woods AJ, Hamilton RH, Kranjec A, Minhas P, Bikson M, Yu J, Chatterjee A. Space, Time, and Causality in the Human Brain. Neuroimage 2014; 92:285-297 PDF

Truong DQ, Huber M, Xie X, Datta A, Rahman A, Parra LC, Dmochowski J, Bikson M. Clinician accessible tools for GUI computational models of transcranial electrical stimulation: BONSAI and SPHERES. Brain Stimulation 2014; 7(4):521-4. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.03.009 PDF   Use the free modeling tools here: BONSAI and SPHERES

Schambra HM, Bikson M, Wager TD, DosSantos MF, DaSilva AF. It's all in your head: reinforcing the placebo response with tDCS. Brain Stimulation 2014; 7(4): 623-4  Letter-to-Editor PDF

Brunoni AR, Shiozawa P, Truong D, Javitt DC, Elkis, H, Fregni F, Bikson M. Understanding tDCS effects in schizophrenia: a systematic review of clinical data and an integrated computation modeling analysis. Expert Reviews of Medical Devices 2014; epub PDF

Toshev P, Guleyupoglu B, Bikson M. Informing dose design by modeling transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation Clinical Neurophysiology 2014; S1388-2457(14)00174-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.03.022.; PDF

Shahid SS, Bikson M, Wen P, Ahfock T. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation Journal of Neural Engineering 2014; 11(3):036002. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/3/036002 PDF

Manuel AL, David AW, Bikson M, Schnider A. Frontal tDCS modulates orbitofrontal reality filtering. Neuroscience 2014; 264: 21-27 PDF Journal Link

Weiss SA, Bikson M. Open questions on the mechanisms of neuromodulation with applied and endogenous electric fields. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2014; doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00227 Free Online Opening editorial to special issue co-edited by M. Bikson and S.H Weiss

Rahman A, Toshev PL, Bikson M. Polarizing cerebellar neurons with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Clinical Neurophysiology 2014; 125: 435-438 PDF


Kessler SK, Woods AJ, Minhas O, Rosen AR, Gorman C, Bikson M. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study. PLOSE ONE In Press 2013, 8(9): e76112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076112 Free Online

Bikson M, Bestmann S, Edwards D. Transcranial Devices are not playthings. Nature 2013; correspondence 501:7466 PDF

Guleyupoglu B, Schestatsky P, Edwards D, Fregni F, Bikson M. Classification of methods in transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2013; 219: 291-311 PDF Journal Link

Berker AO, Bikson M, Bestmann S. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00613 Journal Link

Rahman A, Bikson M. Origins of specificity during tDCS: anatomical, activity-selective, and input-bias mechanisms Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00688 Journal Link

Reato D, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00687 Journal Link PDF

Bikson M, Dmochowski J, Rahman A. The “Quasi-Uniform” Assumption in Animal and Computational Models of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation. Brain Stimulation Letter to the Editor 2013; 6:704-705 PDF

Datta A, Zhou X, Su Y, Parra LC, Bikson M. Validation of finite element model of transcranial electrical stimulation using scalp potentials: implications for clinical dose. J Neural Engineering 2013;10(3):036018. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/10/3/036018 PDF

Dmochowski J, Datta A, Huang Y, Richardson JC, Bikson M, Fridriksson J, Parra KC. Targeted Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Rehabilitation after Stroke. J Neuroimage 2013; 75:12-19 PDF

Moreno-Duarte I, Morse L, Alam M, Bikson M, Zafonte R, Fregni F. Targeted therapies using electric and magnetic neural stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in spinal cord injury. Neuroimage 2013; 85(3) 1003-1013 PDF

Okano AH, Fontes EB, Montenegro RA, Farinatti PV, Cyrino ES, Min LL, Bikson M, Noakes TD. Brain stimulation modulates the autonomic nervous system, rating of perceived exertion and performance during maximal exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2013; epub PDF

Cano T, Morales-Quezada JL, Bikson M, Fregni F. Methods to focalize noninvasive electrical brain stimulation: principles and future clinical development for the treatment of pain. Expert Reviews Neurotherapy 2013; 13(5):465-7 Proof PDF

Rahman A, Reato D, Arlotti M, Gasca F, Datta A, Parra LC, Bikson M. Cellular Effects of Acute Direct Current Stimulation: Somatic and Synaptic Terminal Effects. Journal of Physiology 2013; 591.10: 2563-2578 PDF

Truong DQ, Magerowski G, Blackburn GL, Bikson M, Alonso-Alonso M. Computational modeling of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in obesity: impact of head fat and dose guidelines. Neuroimage Clinical 2013; 2:759-766 PDF

Edwards D, Cortes M, Datta A, Minhas P, Wassermann EM, Bikson M. Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: a basis for high-definition tDCS NeuroImage 2013; 74: 266-275 PDF

Villamar MF, Volz MS, Datta A, Bikson N, DaSilva AF, Fregni F. Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS). JOVE 2013; (77) doi: 10.3791/50309. WATCH

Chrysikou EG, Hamilton RH, Coslett HB, Datta A, Bikson N, Thompson-Schill SL. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation over the left prefrontal cortex facilitates cognitive flexibility in tool use. Cognitive Neuroscience 2013; 4(2) 81-89 TEXT

Villamar MF, Wivatvongvana P, Patumanond J, Bikson M, Truong DQ, Datta A, Fregi F. Focal modulation of primary motor cortex in Fibromyalgia using 4x1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS): Immediate and delayed analgesic effects of cathodal and anodal stimulation. J Pain 2013; 14(4): 371-83 PDF

Reato D, Gasca F, Datta, A, Bikson M, Marshall L, Parra LC. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis. PLOS Computational Biology 2013; 9(2): e1002898. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002898 LINK

Hahn C, Rice J, Macuff S, Minhas P, Rahman A, Bikson M. Methods for extra-low voltage transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Current and time dependent impedance decreases. Clinical Neurophysiology 2013; 124(3) 551-556 PDF

Datta A, Dmochowski J, Guleyupoglu B, Bikson N, Fregni F. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation: A computer based high-resolution modeling study Neuroimage 2012; 65:280-287. PDF

Kuo HI, Datta A, Bikson M, Minhas P. Paulus W, Kuo MF, Nitsche MA. Comparing cortical plasticity induced by conventional and high-definition 4x1 ring tDCS: a neurophysiological study Brain Stimulation 2013; 6(4):644-8 PDF Journal Link

Weiss SA, McKhann G, Goodman R, Emerson RG, Trevelyan A, Bikson M, Schevon CA. Field effects and ictal synchonization: insights from in homine observations Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; 7:828 Free Journal Link


Datta A, Troung D, Minhas P, Parra LC, Bikson M. Inter-individual variation during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and normalization of dose using MRI-derived computational models. Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. 2012; 3:91. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00091 Open Access

Bikson M, Rahman A, Datta A. Computational Models of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience . 2012; 43(3) 176-183 PDF

Dasilva AF, Mendonca ME, Zaghi S, Lopes M, Dossantos MF, Spierings EL, Bajwa Z, Datta A, Bikson M, Fregni F. tDCS-Induced Analgesia and Electrical Fields in Pain-Related Neural Networks in Chronic Migraine. Headache. 2012; 52(8) 1283-95 PDF

Medina J, Beauvais J, Datta A, Bikson M, Coslett HB, Hamilton RH. Transcranial direct current stimulation accelerates allocentric target detection. Brain Stimulation. 2012; 6(3) 433-9 PDF Journal Link

Dmochowski JP, Bikson M, Parra LC. The point spread function of the human head and its implications for transcranial current stimulation. Phys Med Biol. 2012; 57(20) 6459-77 PDF

Kronberg G, Bikson M. Electrode assembly design for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A FEM modeling study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 891-5. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346075 PDF

Truong DQ, Magerowski G, Pascual-Leone A, Alonso-Alonso M, Bikson M. Finite Element Study of Skin and Fat Delineation in an Obese Subject for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 6587-90. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347504 PDF

Truong DQ, Datta A, Xu J, Fregni F, Bikson M. Optimization of Prefrontal Cortex transcranial Direct Current Stimulation via a Combined High Definition and Conventional Electrode Montage: A FEM modeling studying. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; Slides: PDF

Minhas P, Bikson M, Woods A, Rosen A, Kessler S. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Pediatric Brain: A computational modeling study. 859-62. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346067. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; PDF Free PMIC

Arlotti M, Rahman A, Minhas P, Bikson M. Axon terminal polarization induced by weak uniform DC electric fields: a modeling study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 4575-8. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346985 PDF

Dmochowski J, Bikson M, Datta A, Richardson J, Fridriksson J, Parra L. On the Role of Electric Field Orientation in Optimal Design of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 6426-9. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347465. PDF

Caparelli-Daquer E, Zimmermann TJ, Mooshagian E, Parra L, Rice J, Datta A, Bikson M, Wassermann EA. Pilot Study on Effects of 4x1 High-Definition tDCS on Motor Cortex Excitability.Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 735-8. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346036. PDF

Bikson M, Rahman A, Datta A, Fregni F, Merabet L. High-Resolution Modeling Assisted Design of Customized and Individualized Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2012; 15:306-315 PDF

Elwassif MM, Datta A, Rahman A, Bikson M. Temperature control at DBS electrodes using a heat sink: experimentally validated FEM model of DBS lead architecture. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2012; 8(4) PDF

Borckardt JJ, Bikson M, Frohman H, Reeves ST, Datta A, Bansal V, Madan A, Barth K, George MS. A Pilot Study of the Tolerability and Effects of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) on Pain Perception. Journal of Pain . 2012; 13(2): 112-120 PDF

Peterchev AV, Wagner TM, Miranda PC, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Lisanby SG, Pascual-Leone A, Bikson M. Fundamentals of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation dose: definition, selection, and reporting practices. Brain Stimulation 2012; 5:435-53 PDF

Bikson M, Reato D, Rahman A. Cellular effects of electric and magnetic fields: insights animal models and in slice. In Transcranial Brain Stimulation (Frontiers in Neuroscience) 2012 ed. Carolo Miniussi, Walter Paulus, Paolo M. Rossini. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1439875704 p55-92 PDF

Bikson M, Datta A. Guidlines for precise and accurate models of tDCS. Brain Stimulation 2012; 5:430-4 PDF

Brunoni AR, Nitsche MA, Bolognini N, Bikson M et al. Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions. Brain Stimulation 2012; 5(3): 175-95 PDF


Dasilva AF, Volz MS, Bikson M, Fregni F. Electrode positioning and montage in transcranial direct current stimulation. JOVE . 2011; (51) video

Turkeltaub PE, Benson J, Hamilton RH, Datta A, Bikson M, Coslett HB. Left lateralizing transcranial direct current improves reading efficiency. Brain Stimulation 2011; 5:201-7 PDF

Dmochowski JP, Datta A, Bikson M, Su Y, Parra LC. Optimized multi-electrode stimulation increases focality and intensity at target. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2011; 8(4) PDF

Datta A, Baker J, Bikson M, Fridriksson F. Individualized model predicts brain current flow during transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment in responsive stroke patient. Brain Stimulation 2011; 4: 169-74 PDF Pub Med HTML

Halko M, Datta A, Plow E, Scaturro J, Bikson M, Merabet L. Neuroplastic changes following rehabilitative training correlate with regional electrical field induced with tDCS. NeuroImage . 2011; 57: 885-891 PDF

Mendonca ME, Santana MB, Baptista AF, Datta A, Bikson M, Fregni D, Araujo CP. Transcranial DC Stimulation in Fibromyalgia: Optimized cortical target supported by high-resolution computational models. Journal of Pain . 2011; 12(5):610-617 PDF COVER

Minhas P, Datta A, Bikson M. Cutaneous perception during tDCS: Role of electrode shape and sponge salinity. Clinical Neurophysiology . 2011; 122:637-638 PDF

Bikson M, Datta A, Elwassif M, Bansal V, Peterchev AV. Introduction to Electrotherapy Technology. in Brain Stimulation in the Treatment of Pain. ed. Helena Knotkova, Ricardo Crucianim, and Joav Merrick. Nova Science, New York 2011 ISBN 978-1-60876-690-1 PDF


Reato D, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra L. Low-intensity electrical stimulation affects network dynamics by modulating population rate and spike timing. Journal of Neuroscience. 2010; 30(45):15067-79 PDF

Servais EL, Rizk NP,McGwyver LO, Rusch VW, Bikson M, Adusumilli PS. Real-time intraoperative detection of tissue hypoxia in gastrointestinal surgery by Wireless Pulse Oximetry (WiPOX). Surgical Endoscopy. 2010; 25(5):1383-9

Datta A, Rahman A, Scaturro J, Bikson M. Electrode montages for tDCS and weak transcranial electrical stimulation Role of "return" electrode's position and size. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2010; 121:1976-1978 PDF

Minhas P, Patel J, Bansal V, , Ho J, Datta A, Bikson M. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS. Journal of Neuroscience Methods . 2010; 190(2):188-97 PDF

Datta A, Bikson M, Fregni F. Transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with skull defects and skull plates: High-resolution computational FEM study of factors altering cortical current flow. Neuroimage . 2010; 52(4):1268-78 PDF

Sunderam S, Gluckman B, Reato D, Bikson M. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control. Epilepsy & Behavior . 2010; 17:6-22 PDF

Lopez-Quitero SV, Datta A, Amaya R, Elwassif M, Bikson M, Tarbell JM. DBS-relevant electric fields increase hydraulic conductivity of in vitro endothelial monolayers. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2010; 7(1) PDF


Radman T, Ramos RL, Brumberg JC, Bikson M. Role of cortical cell type and morphology in sub- and suprathreshold uniform electric field stimulation. Brain Stimulation. 2009; 2(4):215-228. PDF

Datta A, Bansal V, Diaz J, Patel J, Reato D, Bikson M. Gyri –precise head model of transcranial DC stimulation: Improved spatial focality using a ring electrode versus conventional rectangular pad. Brain Stimulation. 2009; 2(4):201-207. PDF

Datta A, Elwassif M. Bikson M. Establishing safety limits for transcranial direct current stimulation Clinical Neurophysiology . 2009; 120:1033-1034 PDF

Bikson M, Datta A, Elwassif M. Bio-heat transfer model of transcranial DC stimulation: Comparison of conventional pad versus ring electrode IEEE EMBS. 2009 PDF


Bikson M, Bulow P, Stiller JW, Datta A, Battaglia F, Karnup SV, Postolache TT. Transcranial direct current stimulation for major depression: a general system for quantifying transcranial electrotherapy dosage. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2008; 10:377-85. PDF

Datta A, Elwassif M, Battaglia F, Bikson M. Transcranial current stimulation focality using disc and ring electrode configurations: FEM analysis. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2008; 5:163-174. PDF

An JH, Radman T, Su Y, Bikson M. Effects of glucose and glutamine concentration in the formulation of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). Brain Research. 2008; 1218:1586-93 PDF

Su Y, Radman T, Vaynshteyn J, Parra LC, Bikson M. Effects of high-frequency stimulation on epileptiform activity in vitro: ON/OFF control paradigm. Epilepsia. 2008; 49:1586-93 PDF


Radman T, Su Y, An JH, Parra L, Bikson M. Spike timing amplifies the effect of electric fields on neurons: Implications for endogenous field effects Journal of Neuroscience. 2007; 27:3030-3036. PDF

Fox JE, Bikson M, Jefferys JG. The effect of neuronal population size on the development of epileptiform discharges in the low calcium model of epilepsy. Neuroscience Letters. 2007; 411:158-61.


Elwassif MM, Kong Q, Vazquez M, Bikson M. Bio-heat transfer model of deep brain stimulation-induced temperature changes. Journal of Neural Engineering. 2006; 3:306-15. PDF

Merrill D, Bikson M, Jefferys JGR. Electrical stimulation of excitable tissue: design of efficacious and safe protocols. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2005; 141: 171-198 PDF

Fox JE, Bikson M, Jefferys JGR. Tissue resistance changes and the profile of synchronized neuronal activity during ictal events in the low calcium model of epilepsy. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2004; 92: 181-188 PDF

Bikson M, Inoue M, Akiyama H, Deans JK, Fox JE, Miyakawa H, Jefferys JGR. 
Effects of uniform extracellular DC electric fields on excitability in rat hippocampal
slices in vitro.  Journal of Physiology. 2004; 557: 175-190 PDF

Durand DM, Bikson M. Control of neuronal activity by electric fields: in-vitro models of epilepsy. In . Deep Brain Stimulation. 2003; Hans Luders ed. Martin Dunitz Ltd. ISBN 978-1841842592

Bikson M, Hahn PJ, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR.  Depolarization block of neurons during maintenance of electrographic seizures. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2003; 90: 2402-2408 PDF

Jefferys JGR, Deans J, Bikson M, Fox J. Effects of weak electric fields on the activity of neurons and neuronal network. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2003; 106:321-323

Shuai J, Bikson M, Lian J, Hahn PJ, Durand DM.  Ionic mechanisms underlying spontaneous CA1 neuronal firing in Ca2+-Free Solution. Biophysical Journal 2003; 84: 2099-111

Lian J, Bikson M, Sciortino C, Stacey WC, Durand DM.  Local suppression of epileptiform activity by AC Fields. Journal of Physiology. 2003; 547: 427-434

Bikson M, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR. Neuronal aggregate formation underlies spatio-temporal dynamics of non-synaptic seizure initiation. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2003; 89: 2330-2331 PDF

Bikson M, Id Bihi R, Vreugdenhil M, Kohling R, Fox JE, Jefferys JGR. Quinine suppresses extracellular potassium transients and ictal epileptiform activity without decreasing neuronal excitability in vitro. Neuroscience 2002; 115: 253-263

Lian J, Bikson M, Shuai J, Durand DM. Propagation of non-synaptic epileptiform activity across lesion in rat hippocampal slices.  Journal of Physiology 2001; 537; 191-199

Bikson M, Baraban SC, Durand DM. Conditions sufficient for non-synaptic epileptogenesis in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Journal of Neurophysiology 2001; 87:62-71 PDF

Bikson M, Lian J, Hahn PJ, Stacey WC, Sciortino C, Durand DM. Suppression of epileptiform activity by high frequency sinusoidal fields in rat hippocampal slices. Journal of Physiology 2001; 531:181-191 PDF

Durand DM, Bikson M. Suppression and control of epileptiform activity by electrical stimulation: a review. Proceedings of the IEEE 2001; 89:1065-1082 PDF

Ghai R, Bikson M, Durand DM. Effects of applied electric fields on low calcium epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.  Journal of Neurophysiology 2000; 84:274-280 PDF

Bikson M, Ghai R, Baraban SC, Durand DM. Modulation of burst frequency, duration, and amplitude in the zero-Ca+2 model of epileptiform activity. Journal of Neurophysiology 1999; 82:2262-70 PDF

Marom Bikson

Media / Selected Professional Activities

Also visit CCNY Neural Engineering Group NEWS

2017 IBM thinkLeaders link

2017 HBO  - VICE news watch

2016 TEDx Bushwick watch

2016 Al Jazeera America watch

2016 SmartHealth Personal Feature link

2015 New Statesman link

2015 Motherboard link

2015 La Vangaurdia (pesonal feature on paper back page)  link

2015 PBS newhour watch

2015 Member Boston Scientific advisory board

2015 Chair, NYC Neuromodulation Jan 9, 2015 link

2014 MIT Tech Review Nov 10, 2014 link

2014 Scientific American Mind: Your Electric Pharmay Nov 2014 link

2014 NPR "Hacking The Brain With Electricity: Don't Try This At Home" link May 19, 2014

2014 FrenchTV "Electrodes for a Better Brain" video in french May 20, 2014

2014 WIRED magazine "The Unfinished Science Behind the New Wave of Electrical Brain Stimulation" link May 5, 2014

2014 IEEE-Spectrum "The Latest DIY Craze: Brain Hacking" link

2014 KQED (NPR) "Is Brain Stimulation a Medicine of the Future" link

2013 Chair: NYCneuromodulation conference Program link

2013 DIYtDCS PodCast audio interview link

Runner's World "Zap Your Brain to Run Faster" link Feb 27, 2013

2012 "Electrical brain stimulation gains ground" San Fransico Chronicle; Oct 30, 2012 link

2012 "tDCS Course" at Harvard Medical School Lecture on "tDCS Dose and Mechanism." Watch the talk- Low Res Version Only or on YouTube


Marom Bikson
Professor of Biomedical Engineering The City College of The City University of New York
Bikson Lab [..]